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Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 344 - 371, 25.11.2022
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1033652

Abstract

Although newspaper political advertising dates back to the late 1970s in Turkey, the literature consisting of systematic studies based on empirical data is relatively small. This paper examines political advertising in newspapers during eight general elections between 1977 and 2007 in Turkey by using the qualitative content analysis method. This study aims to explore the main characteristics of newspaper political advertisements to contribute to a deeper understanding of Turkish political culture. The study covers a total of 434 political ads collected from the online archive of Milliyet to classify them according to the categories widely used in the literature. The results of this study indicate that Turkish newspaper political ads are 1-) positive; 2-) issue-oriented though there is an upward trend in the rate of images; 3-) not entirely evidence-based; 4-) generally concerned with the economy-related issues and mostly targeting the youth when it comes to a specific voter segment.

References

  • Athanassios, Samaras N. and Stylianos Papathanassopoulos. 2006. “Polispots in Greece: Between Partisan and Media Logic.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz-Bacha, 211-225. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.
  • Atikcan, Ece Özlem and Kerem Öge. 2012. “Referendum Campaigns in Polarized Societies: The Case of Turkey.” Turkish Studies 13(3): 449-470.
  • Balcı, Şükrü. 2007. “Türkiye’de Negatif Siyasal Reklamlar: 1995, 1999 ve 2002 Genel Seçimleri Üzerine.”Selçuk İletişim 4(4): 122-142.
  • Balcı, Şükrü and Enes Bal. 2008. “22 Temmuz 2007 Genel Seçimleri'nde AKP ve CHP Reklamları: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Analiz.” İstanbul Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi 33: 5-28.
  • Blumler, Jay G. and Dennis Kavanagh. 1999. “The Third Age of Political Communication: Influences and Features.” Political Communication 16(3): 209-230.
  • Bowers, Thomas A. 1972. “Issue and Personality Information in Newspaper Political Advertising.” Journalism Quarterly 49(3): 446-452.
  • Can, Baki. 2006. “Persuading Voters and Political Advertising in Turkey.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz-Bacha, 387-397. California: Sage.
  • Can, Baki. 1999. “Television and Electoral Success in Turkey.” In Television and Politics in Evolving European Democracies, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid, 171-185. New York: Nova Science. Dalton, Russell J. and Martin P. Wattenberg. 2000. Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Drisko, James W. and Tina Maschi. 2016. Content Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Duverger, Maurice. 1964. Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. Translated by Barbara North and Robert North. London: Methuen.
  • Elebash, Camille and James Rosene. 1982. “Issues in Political Advertising in a Deep South Gubernatorial Race.” Journalism Quarterly 59(3): 420-423.
  • Garramone, Gina M. 1984. “Voter Response to Negative Political Ads.” Journalism Quarterly 61(2): 250-259.
  • Garramone, Gina M., Charles K. Atkin, Bruce E. Pinkleton and Richard T. Cole.1990. “Effects of Negative Political Advertising on the Political Process.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 34(3):299-311.
  • Geer, John G. 2006. In Defense of Negativity: Attack Ads in Presidential Campaigns. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Hallin, Daniel C. and Paolo Mancini. 2004. “Americanization, Globalization, and Secularization: Understanding the Convergence of Media Systems and Political Communication.” In Comparing Political Communication: Theories, Cases, and Challenges, edited by Frank Esser and Barbara Pfetsch, 25-44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Holtz-Bacha, Christina and Lynda Lee Kaid. 2006. “Political Advertising in International Comparison.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz- Bacha, 3-13. California: Sage.
  • Hopkin, Jonathan, and Paolucci Caterina. 1999. “The Business Firm Model of Party Organisation: Cases from Spain and Italy.” European Journal of Political Research 35(3): 307-339.
  • Humke, Ronald G., Raymond L. Schmitt, and Stanley E. Grupp. 1975. “Candidates, Issues and Party in Newspaper Political Advertisements.” Journalism Quarterly 52(3): 499-504.
  • Jamieson, Kathleen H. 1992. Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Johnston, Anne and Lynda Lee Kaid. 2002. “Image Ads and Issue Ads in Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle to Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads from 1952 to 2000.” Journal of Communication 52(2): 281–300.
  • Kahn, Kim Fridkin and Patrick J. Kenney. 2000. “How Negative Campaigning Enhances Knowledge of Senate Elections.” In Crowded Airwaves: Campaign Advertising in Elections, edited by James A. Thurber, Candice J. Nelson and David A. Dulio, 65-95. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 2004. “Political Advertising.” In Handbook of Political Communication Research, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid, 155-202. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee and Anne Johnston. 1991. “Negative versus Positive Television Advertising in Presidential Campaigns, 1960-1988.” Journal of Communication 41(3): 53–64.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 1997. “Communication: View from the Helm for the Twenty-First Century.” In Trends in Political Campaign Communication Research, edited by Judith S. Trent, 122-126. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 1981. “Political Advertising.” In Handbook of Political Communication, edited by Dan Nimmo and Keith Saunders, 249-271. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 2006. “Political Advertising in the United States.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz-Bacha, 37-61. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 1999a. Television and Politics in Evolving European Democracies. Commack, NY: NovaScience.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 1999b. “Political Advertising: A Summary of Research Findings.” In The Handbook of Political Marketing, edited by Bruce Newman, 423-438. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee and Christina Holtz-Bacha. 1995. Political Advertising in Western Democracies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Kamber, Victor. 1997. Poison Politics: Are Negative Campaigns Destroying Democracy? Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
  • Karahan, Zeynep. 1995. “1991 Erken Genel Seçimleri ve Reklam Ajanslarının Etkinlikleri.”Marmara İletişim Dergisi 9: 57-79.
  • Kircheimer, Otto. 1966. “The Transformation of Western European Party Systems.” In Political Parties and Political Development, edited by Joseph La Palombara and Myron Weiner, 177-200. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Krippendorff, Klaus. 2004. Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.
  • Krouwel, Andre. 2006. “Party Models.” In Handbook of Party Politics, edited by Richard S. Katz and William Crotty, 249-269. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage.
  • Lasswell, Harold D., Daniel Lerner, and Ithiel de Sola Pool. 1952. The Comparative Study of Symbols: An Introduction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Lau, R. Richard, Lee Sigelman and Ivy Brown Rovner. 2007. “The Effects of Negative Political Campaigns: A Meta-Analytics Reassessment.” The Journal of Politics 69(4): 1176–1209.
  • Malloy, Liam C. and Shanna Pearson-Merkowitz. 2016. “Going Positive: The Effects of Negative and Positive Advertising on Candidate Success and Voter Turnout.” Research and Politics 3(1): 1-15. Manin, Bernard. 1997. The Principles of Representative Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Neuendorf, Kimberly A. 2017. The Content Analysis Guidebook. 2nd edition. Los Angeles: Sage.
  • Paletz, David and Danielle Vinson. 1994. “Mediatisierung von Wahlkampagnen: Zur Rolle der amerikanischen Medien bei Wahlen.” Media Perspektiven 7: 362-368.
  • Panebianco, Angelo. 1988. Political Parties: Organization and Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pfau, Michael and Henry C. Kenski. 1990. Attack Politics: Strategy and Defence. New York: Praeger.
  • Raymond, Paul Bradford. 1987. "Shaping the News: An Analysis of House Candidates’ Campaign Communications.” In Campaigns in the News: Mass Media and Congressional Elections, edited by Jan P. Vermeer, 13-29. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Scarrow, Susan E. and Paul D. Webb. 2017. “Investigating Party Organization: Structures, Resources, and Representative Strategies.” In Organizing Political Parties: Representation, Participation and Power, edited by Susan E. Scarrow, Paul D. Webb and Thomas Poguntke, 1-30. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Shapiro, Michael A. and Robert H. Rieger. 1992. “Comparing Positive and Negative Political Advertising on Radio.” Journalism Quarterly 69(1): 135-145.
  • Shyles, Leonard. 1986. “The Televised Political Spot Advertisement: Its Structure, Content, and Role in the Political System.” In New Perspectives on Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid, Dan Nimmo and Keith R. Sanders, 107-138. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
  • Surlin, Stuart H. and Thomas F. Gordon. 1977. “How Values Affect Attitudes Toward Direct Reference Political Advertising.” Journalism Quarterly 54(1): 89-98.
  • Swanson, David L. and Paolo Mancini. 1996. “Patterns of Modern Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences.” In Politics, Media, and Modern Democracy: An International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences, edited by David L. Swanson and Paolo Mancini, 247-276. London: Praeger.
  • Toros, Emre. 2015. “Negative Campaigning in Turkish Elections.” Turkish Studies 16(4): 1-23.
  • Toros, Emre. 2017. “How to Run the Show? The Differential Effects of Negative Campaigning.” Turkish Studies 18(2): 297-312.
  • Uztuğ, Ferruh. 2003. “Siyasal Marka Konumlandırma ve Siyasal Mesaj Stratejileri İlişkisi: 1991-1995-1999 Seçimleri Türkiye Siyasal Reklam Mesaj Türleri Analizi.”Selçuk İletişim 3(1): 4-19.
  • Walter, Annemarie S. and Rens Vliegenthart. 2010. “Negative Campaigning Across Different Communication Channels: Different Ball Games?” International Journal of Press Politics 15(4): 441–461.

Türk Siyasal Reklamcılığı: 1977-2007 Yılları Arasındaki Siyasal Gazete Reklamları Üzerine Bir İçerik Analizi

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 344 - 371, 25.11.2022
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1033652

Abstract

Türkiye'de siyasal reklamcılığın geçmişi 1970'lerin sonlarına kadar uzanmasına rağmen, ampirik verilere dayalı sistematik çalışmaları içeren literatür nispeten küçüktür. Bu makale, Türkiye'de 1977 ile 2007 yılları arasında gerçekleşen sekiz genel seçimde gazetelerdeki siyasal reklamları nitel içerik analizi yöntemiyle incelemektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türk siyasi kültürünün daha derinlemesine anlaşılmasına katkıda bulunmak için gazete siyasi reklamlarının temel özelliklerini incelemektir. Çalışma, Milliyet'in çevrimiçi arşivinden derlenen toplam 434 siyasal reklamın literatürde yaygın olarak kullanılan kategorilere göre sınıflandırılmasını kapsamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın sonuçları, siyasal reklamların 1-) olumlu olduğunu; 2-) imaj oranlarında artan bir eğilim olmasına rağmen konu odaklı olduğunu; 3-) kanıt sunmada yeterli olmadığını; 4-) konu bakımından genel olarak ekonomiye odaklandığını ve belirli bir seçmen kesimi söz konusu olduğunda çoğunlukla gençleri hedef aldığını göstermektedir.

References

  • Athanassios, Samaras N. and Stylianos Papathanassopoulos. 2006. “Polispots in Greece: Between Partisan and Media Logic.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz-Bacha, 211-225. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.
  • Atikcan, Ece Özlem and Kerem Öge. 2012. “Referendum Campaigns in Polarized Societies: The Case of Turkey.” Turkish Studies 13(3): 449-470.
  • Balcı, Şükrü. 2007. “Türkiye’de Negatif Siyasal Reklamlar: 1995, 1999 ve 2002 Genel Seçimleri Üzerine.”Selçuk İletişim 4(4): 122-142.
  • Balcı, Şükrü and Enes Bal. 2008. “22 Temmuz 2007 Genel Seçimleri'nde AKP ve CHP Reklamları: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Analiz.” İstanbul Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi 33: 5-28.
  • Blumler, Jay G. and Dennis Kavanagh. 1999. “The Third Age of Political Communication: Influences and Features.” Political Communication 16(3): 209-230.
  • Bowers, Thomas A. 1972. “Issue and Personality Information in Newspaper Political Advertising.” Journalism Quarterly 49(3): 446-452.
  • Can, Baki. 2006. “Persuading Voters and Political Advertising in Turkey.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz-Bacha, 387-397. California: Sage.
  • Can, Baki. 1999. “Television and Electoral Success in Turkey.” In Television and Politics in Evolving European Democracies, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid, 171-185. New York: Nova Science. Dalton, Russell J. and Martin P. Wattenberg. 2000. Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Drisko, James W. and Tina Maschi. 2016. Content Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Duverger, Maurice. 1964. Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. Translated by Barbara North and Robert North. London: Methuen.
  • Elebash, Camille and James Rosene. 1982. “Issues in Political Advertising in a Deep South Gubernatorial Race.” Journalism Quarterly 59(3): 420-423.
  • Garramone, Gina M. 1984. “Voter Response to Negative Political Ads.” Journalism Quarterly 61(2): 250-259.
  • Garramone, Gina M., Charles K. Atkin, Bruce E. Pinkleton and Richard T. Cole.1990. “Effects of Negative Political Advertising on the Political Process.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 34(3):299-311.
  • Geer, John G. 2006. In Defense of Negativity: Attack Ads in Presidential Campaigns. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Hallin, Daniel C. and Paolo Mancini. 2004. “Americanization, Globalization, and Secularization: Understanding the Convergence of Media Systems and Political Communication.” In Comparing Political Communication: Theories, Cases, and Challenges, edited by Frank Esser and Barbara Pfetsch, 25-44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Holtz-Bacha, Christina and Lynda Lee Kaid. 2006. “Political Advertising in International Comparison.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz- Bacha, 3-13. California: Sage.
  • Hopkin, Jonathan, and Paolucci Caterina. 1999. “The Business Firm Model of Party Organisation: Cases from Spain and Italy.” European Journal of Political Research 35(3): 307-339.
  • Humke, Ronald G., Raymond L. Schmitt, and Stanley E. Grupp. 1975. “Candidates, Issues and Party in Newspaper Political Advertisements.” Journalism Quarterly 52(3): 499-504.
  • Jamieson, Kathleen H. 1992. Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Johnston, Anne and Lynda Lee Kaid. 2002. “Image Ads and Issue Ads in Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle to Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads from 1952 to 2000.” Journal of Communication 52(2): 281–300.
  • Kahn, Kim Fridkin and Patrick J. Kenney. 2000. “How Negative Campaigning Enhances Knowledge of Senate Elections.” In Crowded Airwaves: Campaign Advertising in Elections, edited by James A. Thurber, Candice J. Nelson and David A. Dulio, 65-95. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 2004. “Political Advertising.” In Handbook of Political Communication Research, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid, 155-202. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee and Anne Johnston. 1991. “Negative versus Positive Television Advertising in Presidential Campaigns, 1960-1988.” Journal of Communication 41(3): 53–64.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 1997. “Communication: View from the Helm for the Twenty-First Century.” In Trends in Political Campaign Communication Research, edited by Judith S. Trent, 122-126. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 1981. “Political Advertising.” In Handbook of Political Communication, edited by Dan Nimmo and Keith Saunders, 249-271. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 2006. “Political Advertising in the United States.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz-Bacha, 37-61. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 1999a. Television and Politics in Evolving European Democracies. Commack, NY: NovaScience.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee. 1999b. “Political Advertising: A Summary of Research Findings.” In The Handbook of Political Marketing, edited by Bruce Newman, 423-438. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Kaid, Lynda Lee and Christina Holtz-Bacha. 1995. Political Advertising in Western Democracies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Kamber, Victor. 1997. Poison Politics: Are Negative Campaigns Destroying Democracy? Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
  • Karahan, Zeynep. 1995. “1991 Erken Genel Seçimleri ve Reklam Ajanslarının Etkinlikleri.”Marmara İletişim Dergisi 9: 57-79.
  • Kircheimer, Otto. 1966. “The Transformation of Western European Party Systems.” In Political Parties and Political Development, edited by Joseph La Palombara and Myron Weiner, 177-200. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Krippendorff, Klaus. 2004. Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.
  • Krouwel, Andre. 2006. “Party Models.” In Handbook of Party Politics, edited by Richard S. Katz and William Crotty, 249-269. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage.
  • Lasswell, Harold D., Daniel Lerner, and Ithiel de Sola Pool. 1952. The Comparative Study of Symbols: An Introduction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Lau, R. Richard, Lee Sigelman and Ivy Brown Rovner. 2007. “The Effects of Negative Political Campaigns: A Meta-Analytics Reassessment.” The Journal of Politics 69(4): 1176–1209.
  • Malloy, Liam C. and Shanna Pearson-Merkowitz. 2016. “Going Positive: The Effects of Negative and Positive Advertising on Candidate Success and Voter Turnout.” Research and Politics 3(1): 1-15. Manin, Bernard. 1997. The Principles of Representative Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Neuendorf, Kimberly A. 2017. The Content Analysis Guidebook. 2nd edition. Los Angeles: Sage.
  • Paletz, David and Danielle Vinson. 1994. “Mediatisierung von Wahlkampagnen: Zur Rolle der amerikanischen Medien bei Wahlen.” Media Perspektiven 7: 362-368.
  • Panebianco, Angelo. 1988. Political Parties: Organization and Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pfau, Michael and Henry C. Kenski. 1990. Attack Politics: Strategy and Defence. New York: Praeger.
  • Raymond, Paul Bradford. 1987. "Shaping the News: An Analysis of House Candidates’ Campaign Communications.” In Campaigns in the News: Mass Media and Congressional Elections, edited by Jan P. Vermeer, 13-29. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Scarrow, Susan E. and Paul D. Webb. 2017. “Investigating Party Organization: Structures, Resources, and Representative Strategies.” In Organizing Political Parties: Representation, Participation and Power, edited by Susan E. Scarrow, Paul D. Webb and Thomas Poguntke, 1-30. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Shapiro, Michael A. and Robert H. Rieger. 1992. “Comparing Positive and Negative Political Advertising on Radio.” Journalism Quarterly 69(1): 135-145.
  • Shyles, Leonard. 1986. “The Televised Political Spot Advertisement: Its Structure, Content, and Role in the Political System.” In New Perspectives on Political Advertising, edited by Lynda Lee Kaid, Dan Nimmo and Keith R. Sanders, 107-138. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
  • Surlin, Stuart H. and Thomas F. Gordon. 1977. “How Values Affect Attitudes Toward Direct Reference Political Advertising.” Journalism Quarterly 54(1): 89-98.
  • Swanson, David L. and Paolo Mancini. 1996. “Patterns of Modern Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences.” In Politics, Media, and Modern Democracy: An International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences, edited by David L. Swanson and Paolo Mancini, 247-276. London: Praeger.
  • Toros, Emre. 2015. “Negative Campaigning in Turkish Elections.” Turkish Studies 16(4): 1-23.
  • Toros, Emre. 2017. “How to Run the Show? The Differential Effects of Negative Campaigning.” Turkish Studies 18(2): 297-312.
  • Uztuğ, Ferruh. 2003. “Siyasal Marka Konumlandırma ve Siyasal Mesaj Stratejileri İlişkisi: 1991-1995-1999 Seçimleri Türkiye Siyasal Reklam Mesaj Türleri Analizi.”Selçuk İletişim 3(1): 4-19.
  • Walter, Annemarie S. and Rens Vliegenthart. 2010. “Negative Campaigning Across Different Communication Channels: Different Ball Games?” International Journal of Press Politics 15(4): 441–461.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Mustafa BÖLÜKBAŞI>
UŞAK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6895-6151
Türkiye

Publication Date November 25, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ilef1033652, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi}, issn = {2148-7219}, eissn = {2458-9209}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara University}, year = {2022}, volume = {9}, number = {2}, pages = {344 - 371}, doi = {10.24955/ilef.1033652}, title = {Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007}, key = {cite}, author = {Bölükbaşı, Mustafa} }
APA Bölükbaşı, M. (2022). Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007 . Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi , 9 (2) , 344-371 . DOI: 10.24955/ilef.1033652
MLA Bölükbaşı, M. "Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007" . Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 9 (2022 ): 344-371 <http://ilefdergisi.ankara.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/73535/1033652>
Chicago Bölükbaşı, M. "Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007". Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 9 (2022 ): 344-371
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007 AU - MustafaBölükbaşı Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.24955/ilef.1033652 DO - 10.24955/ilef.1033652 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 344 EP - 371 VL - 9 IS - 2 SN - 2148-7219-2458-9209 M3 - doi: 10.24955/ilef.1033652 UR - https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1033652 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Universitesi ILEF Dergisi Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007 %A Mustafa Bölükbaşı %T Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007 %D 2022 %J Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi %P 2148-7219-2458-9209 %V 9 %N 2 %R doi: 10.24955/ilef.1033652 %U 10.24955/ilef.1033652
ISNAD Bölükbaşı, Mustafa . "Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007". Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 9 / 2 (November 2022): 344-371 . https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1033652
AMA Bölükbaşı M. Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2022; 9(2): 344-371.
Vancouver Bölükbaşı M. Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2022; 9(2): 344-371.
IEEE M. Bölükbaşı , "Turkish Political Advertising: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Political Advertisements Between 1977 and 2007", Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 344-371, Nov. 2022, doi:10.24955/ilef.1033652