Research Article
BibTex RIS Cite

Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries

Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 43 - 66, 28.11.2023
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396853

Abstract

Like other forms of marginalization, misogyny feeds on negative stereotypes associated with the targeted group. These stereotypes are dominant in society, perpetuated through discourse, and often perceived as normal. Participatory dictionaries, popular sources of information for people from childhood onward, are one of the platforms where online misogyny is produced. Given the influence of these dictionaries, investigating and revealing misogyny in them may require rethinking and questioning the social assumptions about the female sex in the online environment. Though misogyny does not always result in direct violence, it mentally feeds violence against women. Investigating it in online environments is therefore vital, especially in a world where individuals are increasingly becoming socialized and learning judgments about their sex identities in digital spaces. This study aims to uncover discriminatory and misogynistic discourses against women in participatory dictionaries. For this purpose, its examination is conducted using the oldest and most popular dictionaries in Turkey—namely, Ekşi Sözlük (1999), Instela (2004 at ITU-2015 at Instela), Uludağ Sözlük (2005), and İnci Sözlük (2009). A total of 684 entries containing misogynistic elements under the topic of women are analyzed in this study. In line with the purpose of this study, these entries are analyzed using van Dijk’s ideological square technique. Our analysis reveals that discriminatory language is used against women, describing them as creatures or non-human entities through the use of negative adjectives. In addition to direct misogyny, such as insults and belittlement, indirect misogyny is also found among the entries, including victimization and objectification.

References

  • Anderson, Kristin J. 2014. Modern Misogyny: Anti-Feminism in a Post-Feminist Era. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Basow, Susan A. 1986. Gender Stereotypes: Traditions and Alternatives. Monterey, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
  • Benkler, Yochai. 2006. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Heaven & London: Yale University Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1njknw
  • Borum, Randy. 2011. “Radicalization Into Violent Extremism II: A Review of Conceptual Models and Empirical Research.” Journal of Strategic Security 4 (4): 37-62. https://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1944-0472.4.4.2.
  • Bosson, Jennifer K., Jenel N. Taylor and Jennifer L. Prewitt-Freilino. 2006. “Gender Role Violations and Identity Misclassification: The Roles of Audience and Actor Variables.” Sex Roles 55 (1): 13-24. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11199-006-9056-5.
  • Bratich, Jack and Sarah Banet-Weiser. 2019. “From Pick-Up Artists to Incels: Con(fidence) Games, Networked Misogyny, and the Failure of Neoliberalism.” International Journal of Communication 13: 5003-5027.
  • Brown, Alexander. 2018. “What is so Special about Online (As Compared to Offline) Hate Speech?.” Ethnicities 18 (3): 297-326. https://doi. org/10.1177/1468796817709846.
  • Castells, Manuel. 2008. “The New Public Sphere: Global Civil Society, Communication Networks, and Global Governance.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616 (1): 78-93.
  • Cockburn, Cynthia and Susan Ormrod. 1993. Gender and Technology in the Making. Londra, Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Ltd.
  • Dickel, Valerie and Giulia Evolvi. 2022. “‘Victims of Feminism’: Exploring Networked Misogyny and #MeToo in the Manosphere.” Feminist Media Studies 23 (4): 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2022.2029925.
  • Dragiewicz, Molly. 2008. “Patriarchy Reasserted: Fathers’ Rights and Anti-VAWA Activism.” Feminist Criminology 3 (2): 121-144.
  • Farrell, Tracie, Miriam Fernandez, Jakub Novotny and Harith Alani. 2019. “Exploring Misogyny across the Manosphere in Reddit.” WebSci’19:Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Web Science, 30 June- 3 July, USA. 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1145/3292522.3326045.
  • Felstead, Alan, Duncan Gallie, Francis Green and Ying Zhou. 2007. Skills at Work, 1986-2006. Oxford: ESRC Centre on Skills, Knowledge and Organisational Performance.
  • Fredrickson, Barbara L. and Tomi-Ann Roberts. 1997. “Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women’s Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 21 (2): 173-206. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.
  • Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B., Diana R. Grant and Chau-Pu Chiang. 2003. “Hate Online: A Content Analysis of Extremist Internet Sites.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 3 (1): 29-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530- 2415.2003.00013.x.
  • Gibson, James William. 1994. Warrior Dreams: Violence and Manhood in Post- Vietnam America. New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Gilmore, David D. 2010. Misogyny: The Male Malady. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Gotell, Lise and Emily Dutton. 2016. “Sexual Violence in the ‘Manosphere’: Antifeminist Men’s Rights Discourses on Rape.” International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy 5 (2): 65-80. https://doi.org/10.5204/ ijcjsd.v5i2.310.
  • Holland, Jack. 2012. A Brief History of Misogyny: The World’s Oldest Prejudice. London: Robinson Little, Brown Book Group.
  • Holt, Thomas J., Joshua D. Freilich and Steven M. Chermak. 2017. “Internet- Based Radicalization as Enculturation to Violent Deviant Subcultures.” Deviant Behavior 38 (8): 855-869. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1 197704.
  • Lien, Tracey. 2013. “No Girls Allowed: Unraveling the Story Behind the Stereotype of Video Games Being for Boys.” Polygon, 2 December 2013. https://www.polygon.com/features/2013/12/2/5143856/no-girls- allowed.
  • Maaranen, Anna and Janne Tienari. 2020. “Social Media and Hyper-Masculine Work Cultures.” Gender, Work & Organization 27 (6): 1127-1144. https:// doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12450.
  • Manne, Kate. 2017. Down Girl: The Logic of Misogyny. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Maxwell, December, Sarah R. Robinson, Jessica R. Williams and Craig Keaton. 2020. “‘A Short Story of a Lonely Guy’: A Qualitative Thematic Analysis of Involuntary Celibacy Using Reddit.” Sexuality & Culture 24 (6): 1852-1874. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-020-09724-6.
  • Modleski, Tania. 2008. Loving with a Vengeance: Mass Produced Fantasies for Women. New York & London: Routledge.
  • Nussbaum, Martha C. 2003. Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press. O’Malley, Roberta Liggett, Karen Holt and Thomas J. Holt. 2022. “An Exploration of the Involuntary Celibate (Incel) Subculture Online.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 37 (7-8): 4981-5008. https://doi. org/10.1177/0886260520959625.
  • Phipps, Alison, Jessica Ringrose, Emma Renold and Carolyn Jackson. 2018. “Rape Culture, Lad Culture and Everyday Sexism: Researching, Conceptualizing and Politicizing New Mediations of Gender and Sexual Violence.” Journal of Gender Studies 27 (1): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/09 589236.2016.1266792.
  • Pollock, Scarlet and Jo Sutton. 1999. “Women Click: Feminism and.” In Cyberfeminism: Connectivity, Critique and Creativity, edited by Susan Hawthorne and Renate Klein, 33-51. Melbourne: Spinifex Press Pty Ltd.
  • Walker, Rachel L. 2022. “Call It Misogyny.” Feminist Theory 0 (0): 1-19. https:// doi.org/ 10. 1177/14647001221119995.
  • van Dijk, Teun A. 1993. “Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis.” Discourse & Society 4 (2): 249-283. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002006.
  • Volkmer, Ingrid. 2003. “The Global Network Society and the Global Public Sphere.” Development 46: 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1177/101163700304600 1566.
  • Wajcman, Judy. 2010. “Feminist Theories of Technology.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 34 (1): 143-152.
  • Wilson, Fiona. 2003. “Can Compute, won’t Compute: Women’s Participation in the Culture of Computing”. New Technology, Work and Employment 18 (2): 127-142. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00115.
  • Wrisley, Samantha Pinson. 2021. “Feminist Theory and the Problem of Misogyny.” Feminist Theory 24 (2), 188–207. https://doi. org/10.1177/14647001211039365.
  • @antagonistanbul. 2015. Instela, January 30, 2015. https://tr.instela.com/ kadin---13760151.
  • @kuba ulku ocaklari. 2012. İnci Sözlük, March 10, 2012. http://www.incisozluk. com.tr/e/75594003/v.
  • @limon kimyon zorro. 2013. İnci Sözlük, February 7, 2013. http://www. incisozluk.com.tr/e/110089671/.
  • @navalboy. 2012. Instela, March 27, 2012. https://tr.instela.com/kadin---8590692.
  • @ocean ocean. 2013. Ekşi Sözlük, August 25, 2013. https://eksisozluk1923.com/ entry/36383250.
  • @piremit. 2009. Uludağ Sözlük, January 4, 2009. https://www.uludagsozluk.com/e/4468873/.
  • @prensipleriolanadam. 2015. Uludağ Sözlük, December 29, 2015. https://www. uludagsozluk.com/e/30734527/.
  • @quoth the raven acid. 2016. Instela, January 30, 2016. https://tr.instela.com/ kadin---15013926.
  • @turtelscanfly. 2013. Instela, May 8, 2013. https://tr.instela.com/ kadin---10538859.

Katılımcı Sözlüklerde Mizojinik Görünümler

Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 43 - 66, 28.11.2023
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396853

Abstract

Kadın düşmanlığı, tıpkı diğer ötekileştirme biçimleri gibi, hedef alınan gruba yönelik, toplumda egemen olan, hatta normal olarak görülen kadın varlığına yönelik olumsuz klişelerinden (stereotiplerden) beslenmekte ve söylem aracılığıyla iletilerek yeniden üretilmektedir. Çevrimiçi kadın düşmanlığının üretildiği alanlardan biri olan Katılımcı Sözlükler, bireylerin çocukluktan itibaren başvurdukları bilgi kaynaklarından biridir. Sözlüklerin etkisi ve yaygınlığı nedeniyle sözlüklerdeki kadın düşmanlığının araştırılması ve ifşa edilmesi, çevrimiçi alanda da kadın cinsiyeti üzerindeki toplumsal kabuller üzerine yeniden düşünmeyi, sorgulamayı gerektiricektir. Doğrudan şiddetle her zaman sonuçlanmasa da kadına yönelik şiddeti zihnen besleyen kadın düşmanlığının çevrimiçi alanlarda da araştırılması, bireylerin giderek daha çok cinsiyet kimliklerine dair yargıları dijital alanlarda öğrenerek toplumsallaştığı bir evrende daha da önemli hale gelmiştir. Bu amaçla, Türkiye’deki en eski ve popüler sözlükler olmaları bakımından Ekşi Sözlük (1999), Instela (2004’te İTÜ-2015’te Instela), Uludağ Sözlük (2005) ve İnci Sözlük (2009) üzerinden bir inceleme yapılmıştır. İncelemeye alınan sözlüklerde, kadın başlığı altındaki mizojinik unsurlar içeren 684 entry incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı doğrultusunda, ”kadın” başlığı altındaki entryler, van Dijk’ın ideolojik dördül alan kare tekniğiyle incelenmiştir. İnceleme sonucunda, kadınlara karşı ötekileştirici bir dil kullanıldığı, kadınlardan ”yaratık”, ”varlık” gibi sözcüklerle insandan başka bir türmüş gibi bahsedildiği, kadınları tanımlamak için olumsuz sıfatlara başvurulduğu görülmüştür. Hakarete başvurma, aşağılama vb. doğrudan mizojini ile birlikte kurbanlaştırma, mantığa büründürme gibi dolaylı yoldan da mizojiniye başvurulduğu tespit edilmiştir.

References

  • Anderson, Kristin J. 2014. Modern Misogyny: Anti-Feminism in a Post-Feminist Era. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Basow, Susan A. 1986. Gender Stereotypes: Traditions and Alternatives. Monterey, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
  • Benkler, Yochai. 2006. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Heaven & London: Yale University Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1njknw
  • Borum, Randy. 2011. “Radicalization Into Violent Extremism II: A Review of Conceptual Models and Empirical Research.” Journal of Strategic Security 4 (4): 37-62. https://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1944-0472.4.4.2.
  • Bosson, Jennifer K., Jenel N. Taylor and Jennifer L. Prewitt-Freilino. 2006. “Gender Role Violations and Identity Misclassification: The Roles of Audience and Actor Variables.” Sex Roles 55 (1): 13-24. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11199-006-9056-5.
  • Bratich, Jack and Sarah Banet-Weiser. 2019. “From Pick-Up Artists to Incels: Con(fidence) Games, Networked Misogyny, and the Failure of Neoliberalism.” International Journal of Communication 13: 5003-5027.
  • Brown, Alexander. 2018. “What is so Special about Online (As Compared to Offline) Hate Speech?.” Ethnicities 18 (3): 297-326. https://doi. org/10.1177/1468796817709846.
  • Castells, Manuel. 2008. “The New Public Sphere: Global Civil Society, Communication Networks, and Global Governance.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616 (1): 78-93.
  • Cockburn, Cynthia and Susan Ormrod. 1993. Gender and Technology in the Making. Londra, Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Ltd.
  • Dickel, Valerie and Giulia Evolvi. 2022. “‘Victims of Feminism’: Exploring Networked Misogyny and #MeToo in the Manosphere.” Feminist Media Studies 23 (4): 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2022.2029925.
  • Dragiewicz, Molly. 2008. “Patriarchy Reasserted: Fathers’ Rights and Anti-VAWA Activism.” Feminist Criminology 3 (2): 121-144.
  • Farrell, Tracie, Miriam Fernandez, Jakub Novotny and Harith Alani. 2019. “Exploring Misogyny across the Manosphere in Reddit.” WebSci’19:Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Web Science, 30 June- 3 July, USA. 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1145/3292522.3326045.
  • Felstead, Alan, Duncan Gallie, Francis Green and Ying Zhou. 2007. Skills at Work, 1986-2006. Oxford: ESRC Centre on Skills, Knowledge and Organisational Performance.
  • Fredrickson, Barbara L. and Tomi-Ann Roberts. 1997. “Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women’s Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 21 (2): 173-206. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.
  • Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B., Diana R. Grant and Chau-Pu Chiang. 2003. “Hate Online: A Content Analysis of Extremist Internet Sites.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 3 (1): 29-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530- 2415.2003.00013.x.
  • Gibson, James William. 1994. Warrior Dreams: Violence and Manhood in Post- Vietnam America. New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Gilmore, David D. 2010. Misogyny: The Male Malady. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Gotell, Lise and Emily Dutton. 2016. “Sexual Violence in the ‘Manosphere’: Antifeminist Men’s Rights Discourses on Rape.” International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy 5 (2): 65-80. https://doi.org/10.5204/ ijcjsd.v5i2.310.
  • Holland, Jack. 2012. A Brief History of Misogyny: The World’s Oldest Prejudice. London: Robinson Little, Brown Book Group.
  • Holt, Thomas J., Joshua D. Freilich and Steven M. Chermak. 2017. “Internet- Based Radicalization as Enculturation to Violent Deviant Subcultures.” Deviant Behavior 38 (8): 855-869. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1 197704.
  • Lien, Tracey. 2013. “No Girls Allowed: Unraveling the Story Behind the Stereotype of Video Games Being for Boys.” Polygon, 2 December 2013. https://www.polygon.com/features/2013/12/2/5143856/no-girls- allowed.
  • Maaranen, Anna and Janne Tienari. 2020. “Social Media and Hyper-Masculine Work Cultures.” Gender, Work & Organization 27 (6): 1127-1144. https:// doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12450.
  • Manne, Kate. 2017. Down Girl: The Logic of Misogyny. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Maxwell, December, Sarah R. Robinson, Jessica R. Williams and Craig Keaton. 2020. “‘A Short Story of a Lonely Guy’: A Qualitative Thematic Analysis of Involuntary Celibacy Using Reddit.” Sexuality & Culture 24 (6): 1852-1874. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-020-09724-6.
  • Modleski, Tania. 2008. Loving with a Vengeance: Mass Produced Fantasies for Women. New York & London: Routledge.
  • Nussbaum, Martha C. 2003. Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press. O’Malley, Roberta Liggett, Karen Holt and Thomas J. Holt. 2022. “An Exploration of the Involuntary Celibate (Incel) Subculture Online.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 37 (7-8): 4981-5008. https://doi. org/10.1177/0886260520959625.
  • Phipps, Alison, Jessica Ringrose, Emma Renold and Carolyn Jackson. 2018. “Rape Culture, Lad Culture and Everyday Sexism: Researching, Conceptualizing and Politicizing New Mediations of Gender and Sexual Violence.” Journal of Gender Studies 27 (1): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/09 589236.2016.1266792.
  • Pollock, Scarlet and Jo Sutton. 1999. “Women Click: Feminism and.” In Cyberfeminism: Connectivity, Critique and Creativity, edited by Susan Hawthorne and Renate Klein, 33-51. Melbourne: Spinifex Press Pty Ltd.
  • Walker, Rachel L. 2022. “Call It Misogyny.” Feminist Theory 0 (0): 1-19. https:// doi.org/ 10. 1177/14647001221119995.
  • van Dijk, Teun A. 1993. “Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis.” Discourse & Society 4 (2): 249-283. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002006.
  • Volkmer, Ingrid. 2003. “The Global Network Society and the Global Public Sphere.” Development 46: 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1177/101163700304600 1566.
  • Wajcman, Judy. 2010. “Feminist Theories of Technology.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 34 (1): 143-152.
  • Wilson, Fiona. 2003. “Can Compute, won’t Compute: Women’s Participation in the Culture of Computing”. New Technology, Work and Employment 18 (2): 127-142. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00115.
  • Wrisley, Samantha Pinson. 2021. “Feminist Theory and the Problem of Misogyny.” Feminist Theory 24 (2), 188–207. https://doi. org/10.1177/14647001211039365.
  • @antagonistanbul. 2015. Instela, January 30, 2015. https://tr.instela.com/ kadin---13760151.
  • @kuba ulku ocaklari. 2012. İnci Sözlük, March 10, 2012. http://www.incisozluk. com.tr/e/75594003/v.
  • @limon kimyon zorro. 2013. İnci Sözlük, February 7, 2013. http://www. incisozluk.com.tr/e/110089671/.
  • @navalboy. 2012. Instela, March 27, 2012. https://tr.instela.com/kadin---8590692.
  • @ocean ocean. 2013. Ekşi Sözlük, August 25, 2013. https://eksisozluk1923.com/ entry/36383250.
  • @piremit. 2009. Uludağ Sözlük, January 4, 2009. https://www.uludagsozluk.com/e/4468873/.
  • @prensipleriolanadam. 2015. Uludağ Sözlük, December 29, 2015. https://www. uludagsozluk.com/e/30734527/.
  • @quoth the raven acid. 2016. Instela, January 30, 2016. https://tr.instela.com/ kadin---15013926.
  • @turtelscanfly. 2013. Instela, May 8, 2013. https://tr.instela.com/ kadin---10538859.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social Media Studies, New Media
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Çilem Tuğba KOÇ 0000-0002-3479-4035

Publication Date November 28, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 10 Issue: 2

Cite

APA KOÇ, Ç. T. (2023). Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, 10(2), 43-66. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396853
AMA KOÇ ÇT. Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. November 2023;10(2):43-66. doi:10.24955/ilef.1396853
Chicago KOÇ, Çilem Tuğba. “Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10, no. 2 (November 2023): 43-66. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396853.
EndNote KOÇ ÇT (November 1, 2023) Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10 2 43–66.
IEEE Ç. T. KOÇ, “Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries”, Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 43–66, 2023, doi: 10.24955/ilef.1396853.
ISNAD KOÇ, Çilem Tuğba. “Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10/2 (November 2023), 43-66. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396853.
JAMA KOÇ ÇT. Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2023;10:43–66.
MLA KOÇ, Çilem Tuğba. “Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 2, 2023, pp. 43-66, doi:10.24955/ilef.1396853.
Vancouver KOÇ ÇT. Misogynistic Views in Participatory Dictionaries. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2023;10(2):43-66.