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Supporting the Arts: A Study on the Bourgeoisie and Arts

Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 9 - 42, 28.11.2023
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396847

Abstract

This article investigates the motives of some segments of the bourgeoisie for supporting high art forms such as symphonic music, opera, and ballet. When companies operating in different sectors of the economy—such as banking, energy, law, iron and steel, chemicals, or the automotive sector— sponsor operas, found symphony orchestras, fund ballets, etc., they have different motives than when they invest in the art market and the cultural industry out of desire for profit or rent. A distinction must be made between the bourgeoisie investing in and supporting art. It is understandable for the bourgeoisie, whose main objective is profit maximization, to be active in the rent-generating art market and the surplus-value-producing culture industry. However, unlike the motives behind investments in the art market and the cultural industry, the aims behind the bourgeoisie’s support of high-level art forms cannot be observed at a glance. It is necessary to problematize what these purposes might be. Based on this problematique, the article first focuses on the different forms of the bourgeoisie’s relationship with art. Following this, the ways in which the bourgeoisie supports high-level forms of art are presented. This presentation is followed by a three-level analysis of the bourgeoisie’s reasons for supporting certain art forms. The support for the arts is discussed in relation to the interests of a bourgeois or a company at the singular level; the interests of the bourgeoisie as a class at the particular level; and the class hegemony goals of the bourgeoisie in a world-historical context at the universal level. This three-level discussion is based on Antonio Gramsci’s analysis of the stages of class consciousness. The bourgeoisie is a heterogeneous class, and not all of its segments and members support high- level art forms. In this article, the different tendencies and internal differentiations within the bourgeoisie are framed based on Karl Marx’s class theory.

References

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  • AMMA. 2022. The Art Market in 2021. Art Market Monitor of Artron. Beijing. https://imgpublic.artprice.com/pdf/the-art-market-in-2021.pdf
  • And, Metin, Ergun Şenlik ve Erkan Canak. 1981. Kültürel Etkinlikler ve Büyük Kuruluşlar. Ankara: İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Anderson, Benedict. 1993. Hayali Cemaatler: Milliyetçiliğin Kökenleri ve Yayılması. Çeviren İskender Savaşır. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları.
  • Arts and Business. 2009. Why Do Businesses Sponsor the Arts? Erişim tarihi 26 Ağustos 2022. https://www.artsandbusinessni.org.uk/media/2921/abni- why-businesses-sponsor-the-arts-2021.pdf
  • Arts Council England, 2011. Arts Audiences: Insight. Erişim tarihi 28 Ağustos 2022 https://www.artscouncil.org.uk/sites/default/files/download-file/ arts_audience_insight_2011.pdf
  • Arts Council England, 2019. Contribution of the arts and culture industry to the UK economy. Erişim tarihi 28 Ağustos 2022 https://www.artscouncil. org.uk/research-and-data/contribution-arts-and-culture-industry- uk-economy#:~:text=The%20arts%20and%20culture%20industry%20 has%20grown%20%C2%A3390million%20in,a%20year%20and%20 363%2C700%20jobs
  • Bayer, Thomas Michael. 2001. Money as Muse: ”The Origin ve Development of the Modern Art Market in Victorian England.” Doktora tezi, Tulane University.
  • Beech, Dave. 2015. Art and Value: Art’s Economic Exceptionalism in Classical, Neoclassical and Marxist Economics. Leiden; Boston: Brill.
  • Blaug, Mark. 2019. The Economics of the Arts. Londra: Routledge. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1993. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. Photography: A Middle-brow Art. Çeviren Shaun Whiteside. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 2010. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Çeviren Tony Bennett. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre ve Alain Darbel. 2011. Sanat Sevdası : Avrupa Sanat Müzeleri ve Ziyaretçi Kitlesi. Çeviren Sertaç Canbolat. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları.
  • Bradley, Catherine. 2017. National Classical Music Audiences: An Analysis of Audience Finder Box Office Data for Classical Music Events 2014-2016. Londra: The Audience Agency.
  • Carlucci, Daniela ve Giovanni Schiuma. 2018. “The Power of the Arts in Business.” Journal of Business Research 85: 342-347.
  • Centre for Economics and Business Research. 2019. Contribution of the Arts and Culture Industry to the UK Economy. Erişim tarihi 25 Ağustos 2022. https:// www.artscouncil.org.uk/research-and-data/contribution-arts-and- culture-industry-uk-economy#:~:text=The%20arts%20and%20culture%20 industry%20has%20grown%20%C2%A3390million%20in,a%20year%20- and%20363%2C700%20jobs.
  • Cohen, Randy. 2021. 10 Reasons to Support the Arts in 2021. Americans for the Arts. Erişim tarihi 27 Eylül 2022. https://www.americansforthearts.org/ by-program/reports-and-data/legislation-policy/naappd/10-reasons-to- support-the-arts-in-2021
  • Cohen, Randy, 2022. 10 Reasons to Support the Arts. Washington: Americans for the Arts.
  • Cohen, Randy, William Schaffer, and Benjamin Davidson. 2003. “Arts and Economic Prosperity: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts Organizations and Their Audiences.” Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society 33 (1): 17-31.
  • Çakmur, Barış. 1998. ”Kültürel Üretimin Ekonomi Politiği: Kültürün Metalaşmasında Genel Eğilimler.” Kültür ve İletişim 1 (2): 111-148.
  • Engels, Friedrich. 2021. Alman Köylü Savaşı. Çeviren Okay Gönensin. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Evans, Mel. 2015. Artwash: Big Oil and the Arts. Londra: Pluto Press.
  • Fine, Ben. 2001. Social Capital versus Social Theory: Political Economy and Social Science at the Turn of the Millennium. Londra; New York: Routledge.
  • Ford Foundation. 2023. “Work.” Erişim tarihi 10 Ağustos 2023. https://www.fordfoundation.org.
  • Forgacs, David, Geoffrey Nowell-Smith ve William Boelhowers. 2012. Antonio Gramsci: Selections From Cultural Writings. Londra: Lawrence & Wishart.
  • Knight Frank. 2018. The Wealth Report 2018: The Global Perspective on Prime Property and Investment. Erişim tarihi 20 Ağustos 2022. https:// content.knightfrank.com/research/83/documents/en/the-wealth- report-2018-5338.pdf
  • Frey, Bruno S. 2003. Arts & Economics: Analysis & Cultural Policy. Berlin: Springer. Friedman, Milton. 2002. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Garber, Marjorie B. 2008. Patronizing the Arts. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Girgin, Mehmet ve Ebru Güner-Canbey. 2019. “Operada Bir Tür Olarak ‘Komik’ Kavramına İlişkin Yanılsamalar.” Eurasian Journal of Music and Dance (14): 239-248.
  • Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Londra: Lawrence and Wishart.
  • Harvey, David. 1989. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
  • Hauser, Arnold. 1999. The Social History of Art. Cilt 3. Londra, New York: Routledge.
  • Hobsbawm, Eric. 1995. The Age of Capital: 1848-1875. Londra: Abacus.
  • İKSV. 2012. Ekonomik Etki Araştırması. İstanbul: İstanbul Kültür ve Sanat Vakfı.
  • İnalcık, Halil. 2015. Has-bağçede ‘Ayş u Tarab: Nedimler, Şairler, Mutribler. İstanbul: İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Joes, Segal. 2016. Art and Politics: Between Purity and Propaganda. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Johnson, Randal. 1993. “Pierre Bourdieu on Art, Literature and Culture”. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature içinde, 1-25. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Kahn, Nathaniel (Yönetmen). 2018. The Price of Everything. [Belgesel]: HBO Documentary Films. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri.
  • Klerman, Dan, ve Anja Shortland. 2022. “The Transformation of the Art Market: Law, Norms, and Institutions.” Theoretical Inquiries in Law 23 (1): 219-242.
  • Kösemen, Begüm. 2010. “The Turkish Private Sector’s Investments In Culture And Arts In Light Of The Theory Of Social Capital. “ Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İstanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi.
  • Lewandowska, K. 2015. “From Sponsorship to Partnership in Arts and Business Relations.” Journal of Arts Management Law and Society 45 (1): 33-50.
  • Lynch, Robert L. 2015. Arts & Economic Prosperity III: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts and Culture Organizations and Their Audiences. Americans for the Arts Washington. https://www.americansforthearts.org/sites/ default/files/pdf/information_services/research/services/economic_ impact/aepiii/national_report.pdf
  • Marx, Jerry D. 1998. “Corporate Strategic Philanthropy: Implications for Social Work.” Social Work 43 (1): 34-41.
  • Marx, Karl. 1904. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Chicago: Charles H. Keer & Company.
  • Marx, Karl. 1988. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. Çev. Martin Milligan. New York: Prometheus Books.
  • Marx, Karl. 2021. Kapital. Çev. Mehmet Selik and Erkin Özalp. 7. Baskı, C. 3. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • McAndrew, Clare. 2008. The Art Economy: An Investor’s Guide to the Art Market. Dublin: The Liffey Press.
  • McAndrew, Clare. 2010. Fine Art and High Finance: Expert Advice on the Economics of Ownership. Princeton: Bloomberg Press.
  • McAndrew, Clare. 2021. The Art Market 2021. Art Basel & UBS.
  • McAndrew, Clare. 2022. The Art Market 2022. Art Basel & UBS.
  • McNicholas, Bernadette. 2004. “Arts, Culture and Business: A Relationship Transformation, a Nascent Field.” International Journal of Arts Management 7 (1): 57-69.
  • Miller, Toby. 2017. Greenwashing Culture. New York: Routledge.
  • O’Hagan, John ve Denice Harvey. 2000. “Why Do Companies Sponsor Arts Events? Some Evidence and a Proposed Classification.” Journal of Cultural Economics 24 (3): 205-224.
  • Ollman, Bertell. 2008. Diyalektiğin Dansı: Marx’ın Yönteminde Adımlar. Çeviren Cenk Saraçoğlu. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Ollman, Bertell. 2011. Diyalektik Soruşturmalar. Çeviren Cenk Saraçoğlu. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Ollman, Bertell. 2015. Yabancılaşma: Marx’ın Kapitalist Toplumdaki İnsan Anlayışı. Çeviren Ayşegül Kars. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Pamuk, Orhan. 2000. Benim Adım Kırmızı. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Pinçon, Michel ve Monique Pinçon-Charlot. 2013. Burjuvazinin Sosyolojisi. Çeviren Hande Turan Abadan. Ankara: Epos Yayınları.
  • Players, London Mozart. 2022. “Why Sponsor?” Erişim tarihi 25 Ekim 2022. https://www.londonmozartplayers.com/sponsorship-2/.
  • Porter, M. E. ve M. R. Kramer. 2002. “The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.” Harvard Business Review 80 (12): 56-68.
  • Reuters. 2022. “Pentagon nears F-35 jet deal worth about $30 bln.” Erişim tarihi 22 Temmuz 2022. https://www.reuters.com/business/aerospace- defense/exclusive-pentagon-nears-f-35-jet-deal-worth-about-30-billion- sources-2022-07-18/
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Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme

Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 9 - 42, 28.11.2023
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396847

Abstract

Bu makale, burjuvazinin belirli kesimlerinin üst düzey sanat formlarını neden desteklediği hakkındadır. Bankacılık, enerji, hukuk, demir çelik, kimya veya otomotiv gibi ekonominin değişik sektörlerinde faaliyet yürüten şirketlerin senfoni orkestraları kurmalarının, operalara sponsor olmalarının, baleleri finanse etmelerinin gerisinde, rant motivasyonuyla sanat piyasasına ya da kâr amacıyla kültür endüstrisine yatırım yapmalarından daha farklı nedenler yatmaktadır. Burjuvazinin sanata yatırım yapması ile sanatı desteklemesi arasında ayrım yapılmalıdır. Temel amacı kâr maksimizasyonu olan burjuvazinin rant getiren sanat piyasasında ve artık-değer üreten kültür endüstrisinde aktif olması anlaşılabilir bir durumdur. Buna karşılık burjuvazinin temel faaliyet alanlarından elde ettiği kârın bir kısmıyla üst düzey sanat formlarını desteklemesinin ardında yatan gerekçeler, sanat piyasasına ve kültür endüstrisine yatırım yapma amacında olduğu gibi bir bakışta gözlemlenemez. Bu amaçların neler olabileceğinin sorunsallaştırılması gerekir. Bu sorunsaldan hareket eden makalede öncelikle burjuvazinin sanatla ilişkisinin farklı biçimleri ele alınmıştır. Bunun ardından burjuvazinin sanatın üst düzey formlarını destekleme biçimleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu sergilemeyi takiben burjuvazinin belirli sanat formlarını destekleme nedenlerine ilişkin üç düzeyli bir analiz ortaya konmuştur. Sanata verilen destek tekil düzeyde bir burjuvanın ya da bir şirketin çıkarıyla; tikel düzeyde bir sınıf olarak burjuvazinin çıkarıyla; tümel düzeyde ise evrensel bağlamda burjuvazinin sınıfsal hegemonya hedefleriyle ilişkili olarak tartışılmıştır. Bu üç düzeyli tartışmada Antonio Gramsci’nin sınıf bilincinin uğraklarına ilişkin analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Burjuvazi, homojen bir sınıf olmadığı için sanatın üst düzey formlarını bütün kesimleri ve üyeleriyle desteklemez. Burjuvazinin kendi içinde sanat formları karşısında gösterebileceği farklı eğilimlere ve içsel farklılaşmalara ilişkin çerçeve Karl Marx’ın sınıf teorisine dayandırılmıştır.

Supporting Institution

TÜBİTAK

Thanks

Bu makale, TÜBİTAK 2219 Yurt Dışı Doktora Sonrası Araştırma Burs Programı kapsamında King’s College London’da yürüttüğüm araştırma projesi sırasında üretilmiştir. Desteklerinden ötürü her iki kuruma da teşekkür ederim.

References

  • Adorno, Theodor. 2001. The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture. New York: Routledge.
  • AMMA. 2022. The Art Market in 2021. Art Market Monitor of Artron. Beijing. https://imgpublic.artprice.com/pdf/the-art-market-in-2021.pdf
  • And, Metin, Ergun Şenlik ve Erkan Canak. 1981. Kültürel Etkinlikler ve Büyük Kuruluşlar. Ankara: İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Anderson, Benedict. 1993. Hayali Cemaatler: Milliyetçiliğin Kökenleri ve Yayılması. Çeviren İskender Savaşır. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları.
  • Arts and Business. 2009. Why Do Businesses Sponsor the Arts? Erişim tarihi 26 Ağustos 2022. https://www.artsandbusinessni.org.uk/media/2921/abni- why-businesses-sponsor-the-arts-2021.pdf
  • Arts Council England, 2011. Arts Audiences: Insight. Erişim tarihi 28 Ağustos 2022 https://www.artscouncil.org.uk/sites/default/files/download-file/ arts_audience_insight_2011.pdf
  • Arts Council England, 2019. Contribution of the arts and culture industry to the UK economy. Erişim tarihi 28 Ağustos 2022 https://www.artscouncil. org.uk/research-and-data/contribution-arts-and-culture-industry- uk-economy#:~:text=The%20arts%20and%20culture%20industry%20 has%20grown%20%C2%A3390million%20in,a%20year%20and%20 363%2C700%20jobs
  • Bayer, Thomas Michael. 2001. Money as Muse: ”The Origin ve Development of the Modern Art Market in Victorian England.” Doktora tezi, Tulane University.
  • Beech, Dave. 2015. Art and Value: Art’s Economic Exceptionalism in Classical, Neoclassical and Marxist Economics. Leiden; Boston: Brill.
  • Blaug, Mark. 2019. The Economics of the Arts. Londra: Routledge. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1993. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. Photography: A Middle-brow Art. Çeviren Shaun Whiteside. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 2010. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Çeviren Tony Bennett. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre ve Alain Darbel. 2011. Sanat Sevdası : Avrupa Sanat Müzeleri ve Ziyaretçi Kitlesi. Çeviren Sertaç Canbolat. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları.
  • Bradley, Catherine. 2017. National Classical Music Audiences: An Analysis of Audience Finder Box Office Data for Classical Music Events 2014-2016. Londra: The Audience Agency.
  • Carlucci, Daniela ve Giovanni Schiuma. 2018. “The Power of the Arts in Business.” Journal of Business Research 85: 342-347.
  • Centre for Economics and Business Research. 2019. Contribution of the Arts and Culture Industry to the UK Economy. Erişim tarihi 25 Ağustos 2022. https:// www.artscouncil.org.uk/research-and-data/contribution-arts-and- culture-industry-uk-economy#:~:text=The%20arts%20and%20culture%20 industry%20has%20grown%20%C2%A3390million%20in,a%20year%20- and%20363%2C700%20jobs.
  • Cohen, Randy. 2021. 10 Reasons to Support the Arts in 2021. Americans for the Arts. Erişim tarihi 27 Eylül 2022. https://www.americansforthearts.org/ by-program/reports-and-data/legislation-policy/naappd/10-reasons-to- support-the-arts-in-2021
  • Cohen, Randy, 2022. 10 Reasons to Support the Arts. Washington: Americans for the Arts.
  • Cohen, Randy, William Schaffer, and Benjamin Davidson. 2003. “Arts and Economic Prosperity: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts Organizations and Their Audiences.” Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society 33 (1): 17-31.
  • Çakmur, Barış. 1998. ”Kültürel Üretimin Ekonomi Politiği: Kültürün Metalaşmasında Genel Eğilimler.” Kültür ve İletişim 1 (2): 111-148.
  • Engels, Friedrich. 2021. Alman Köylü Savaşı. Çeviren Okay Gönensin. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Evans, Mel. 2015. Artwash: Big Oil and the Arts. Londra: Pluto Press.
  • Fine, Ben. 2001. Social Capital versus Social Theory: Political Economy and Social Science at the Turn of the Millennium. Londra; New York: Routledge.
  • Ford Foundation. 2023. “Work.” Erişim tarihi 10 Ağustos 2023. https://www.fordfoundation.org.
  • Forgacs, David, Geoffrey Nowell-Smith ve William Boelhowers. 2012. Antonio Gramsci: Selections From Cultural Writings. Londra: Lawrence & Wishart.
  • Knight Frank. 2018. The Wealth Report 2018: The Global Perspective on Prime Property and Investment. Erişim tarihi 20 Ağustos 2022. https:// content.knightfrank.com/research/83/documents/en/the-wealth- report-2018-5338.pdf
  • Frey, Bruno S. 2003. Arts & Economics: Analysis & Cultural Policy. Berlin: Springer. Friedman, Milton. 2002. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Garber, Marjorie B. 2008. Patronizing the Arts. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Girgin, Mehmet ve Ebru Güner-Canbey. 2019. “Operada Bir Tür Olarak ‘Komik’ Kavramına İlişkin Yanılsamalar.” Eurasian Journal of Music and Dance (14): 239-248.
  • Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Londra: Lawrence and Wishart.
  • Harvey, David. 1989. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
  • Hauser, Arnold. 1999. The Social History of Art. Cilt 3. Londra, New York: Routledge.
  • Hobsbawm, Eric. 1995. The Age of Capital: 1848-1875. Londra: Abacus.
  • İKSV. 2012. Ekonomik Etki Araştırması. İstanbul: İstanbul Kültür ve Sanat Vakfı.
  • İnalcık, Halil. 2015. Has-bağçede ‘Ayş u Tarab: Nedimler, Şairler, Mutribler. İstanbul: İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Joes, Segal. 2016. Art and Politics: Between Purity and Propaganda. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Johnson, Randal. 1993. “Pierre Bourdieu on Art, Literature and Culture”. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature içinde, 1-25. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Kahn, Nathaniel (Yönetmen). 2018. The Price of Everything. [Belgesel]: HBO Documentary Films. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri.
  • Klerman, Dan, ve Anja Shortland. 2022. “The Transformation of the Art Market: Law, Norms, and Institutions.” Theoretical Inquiries in Law 23 (1): 219-242.
  • Kösemen, Begüm. 2010. “The Turkish Private Sector’s Investments In Culture And Arts In Light Of The Theory Of Social Capital. “ Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İstanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi.
  • Lewandowska, K. 2015. “From Sponsorship to Partnership in Arts and Business Relations.” Journal of Arts Management Law and Society 45 (1): 33-50.
  • Lynch, Robert L. 2015. Arts & Economic Prosperity III: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts and Culture Organizations and Their Audiences. Americans for the Arts Washington. https://www.americansforthearts.org/sites/ default/files/pdf/information_services/research/services/economic_ impact/aepiii/national_report.pdf
  • Marx, Jerry D. 1998. “Corporate Strategic Philanthropy: Implications for Social Work.” Social Work 43 (1): 34-41.
  • Marx, Karl. 1904. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Chicago: Charles H. Keer & Company.
  • Marx, Karl. 1988. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. Çev. Martin Milligan. New York: Prometheus Books.
  • Marx, Karl. 2021. Kapital. Çev. Mehmet Selik and Erkin Özalp. 7. Baskı, C. 3. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • McAndrew, Clare. 2008. The Art Economy: An Investor’s Guide to the Art Market. Dublin: The Liffey Press.
  • McAndrew, Clare. 2010. Fine Art and High Finance: Expert Advice on the Economics of Ownership. Princeton: Bloomberg Press.
  • McAndrew, Clare. 2021. The Art Market 2021. Art Basel & UBS.
  • McAndrew, Clare. 2022. The Art Market 2022. Art Basel & UBS.
  • McNicholas, Bernadette. 2004. “Arts, Culture and Business: A Relationship Transformation, a Nascent Field.” International Journal of Arts Management 7 (1): 57-69.
  • Miller, Toby. 2017. Greenwashing Culture. New York: Routledge.
  • O’Hagan, John ve Denice Harvey. 2000. “Why Do Companies Sponsor Arts Events? Some Evidence and a Proposed Classification.” Journal of Cultural Economics 24 (3): 205-224.
  • Ollman, Bertell. 2008. Diyalektiğin Dansı: Marx’ın Yönteminde Adımlar. Çeviren Cenk Saraçoğlu. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Ollman, Bertell. 2011. Diyalektik Soruşturmalar. Çeviren Cenk Saraçoğlu. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Ollman, Bertell. 2015. Yabancılaşma: Marx’ın Kapitalist Toplumdaki İnsan Anlayışı. Çeviren Ayşegül Kars. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Pamuk, Orhan. 2000. Benim Adım Kırmızı. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Pinçon, Michel ve Monique Pinçon-Charlot. 2013. Burjuvazinin Sosyolojisi. Çeviren Hande Turan Abadan. Ankara: Epos Yayınları.
  • Players, London Mozart. 2022. “Why Sponsor?” Erişim tarihi 25 Ekim 2022. https://www.londonmozartplayers.com/sponsorship-2/.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Communication Studies
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Gökhan ATILGAN 0000-0002-1569-1110

Publication Date November 28, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 10 Issue: 2

Cite

APA ATILGAN, G. (2023). Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, 10(2), 9-42. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396847
AMA ATILGAN G. Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. November 2023;10(2):9-42. doi:10.24955/ilef.1396847
Chicago ATILGAN, Gökhan. “Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi Ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10, no. 2 (November 2023): 9-42. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396847.
EndNote ATILGAN G (November 1, 2023) Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10 2 9–42.
IEEE G. ATILGAN, “Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme”, Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 9–42, 2023, doi: 10.24955/ilef.1396847.
ISNAD ATILGAN, Gökhan. “Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi Ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10/2 (November 2023), 9-42. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396847.
JAMA ATILGAN G. Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2023;10:9–42.
MLA ATILGAN, Gökhan. “Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi Ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 2, 2023, pp. 9-42, doi:10.24955/ilef.1396847.
Vancouver ATILGAN G. Sanatı Desteklemek: Burjuvazi ve Sanat Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2023;10(2):9-42.