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Indigenous Cinema and The Indian Resisting the Vanishing: Smoke Signals

Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 125 - 168, 28.11.2023
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396870

Abstract

Colonialism has constructed the myth of the “vanishing Indian” over the centuries through science, popular culture, and mainstream cinema. This myth is based on the idea that Indigenous peoples are stuck in the past or frozen in time, and that they are doomed to disappear when they encounter civilized cultures. This study emphasizes the global commonality of colonial violence aimed at the destruction of Indigenous peoples, as well as the struggle against this violence. It examines Indigenous cinema, which exposes the history of colonialism and constructs counter-narratives, as an act of resistance to vanishing and survival. Reflecting Indigenous symbols and rituals on screen, hearing forbidden languages, and articulating what official history conceals make Indigenous cinema an apparatus of political resistance, even if it does not aim to be one. Throughout the history of cinema, films made by whites “about” Indigenous people have imprisoned Indigenous peoples in stereotypes and constructed a language that legitimizes occupation. Each film produced “by” and “for” Indigenous people explicitly or implicitly challenges colonialist representations of Indigenous people and presents the resistance of Indigenous people who are allegedly destined for extinction. Indigenous cinema seeks not to cling to a nostalgic desire to return to a pre-colonial past, or to define the community only in terms of suffering in collective memory, but to construct a new language for continuing to exist as Indigenous people in the contemporary world. This study offers an ideological analysis of Smoke Signals (Chris Eyre, 1998) as an example of Indigenous cinema that deconstructs elements of popular culture and mainstream cinema, engages in a dialogue between contemporary social issues and Indigenous cultural heritage, and celebrates Indigenous existence in the contemporary world.

References

  • Barclay, Barry. 2003. “Celebrating Fourth Cinema.” Illusions Magazine 35: 7-11. https://www.academia.edu/4905111/Printed_in_Illusions_Magazine_ NZ_July_2003_CELEBRATING_FOURTH_CINEMA.
  • Barclay, Barry. 2015. Our Own Image. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Baswan, Meera ve Sena Yenilmez. t.y. “The Sixties Scoop.” Erişim tarihi 15 Ağustos 2022. https://www.theindigenousfoundation.org/articles/the- sixties-scoop.
  • Bergstrom, Aren. 2015. “An Indigenous New Wave of Film.” Erişim tarihi 30 Ekim 2015. https://3brothersfilm.com/blog/2015/10/30/an-indigenous- new-wave-of-film.
  • Blanchard, Pascal. 2016. “Vahşinin İcadı”. Skop Bülten, 26 Temmuz 2016. Çeviren Ali Artun. Erişim tarihi 2 Temmuz 2023. https://www.e-skop.com/ skopbulten/pasajlar-vahsinin-icadi/3011.
  • Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse. 2005. “From Intergenerational Trauma to Intergeneratonal Healing.” Wellbriety Online Magazine 6: 2-8. https://www.sjsu.edu/people/marcos.pizarro/maestros/BraveHeart.pdf.
  • Columpar, Corinn. 2010. Unsettling Sights: The Fourth World on Film. USA: Southern Illinois University.
  • Cordova, Amalia. 2014. “Reenact, Reimagine: Performative Indigenous Documentaries of Bolivia and Brazil.” New Documentaries in Latin America içinde, editörler Vinicius Navarro ve Juan Carlos Rodriguez, 123-144. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Çetin-Erus, Zeynep. 2007. “Manifestolardan Günümüze Üçüncü Sinema Tartışmaları.” Üçüncü Sinema ve Üçüncü Dünya Sineması içinde, editörler Esra Biryıldız ve Zeynep Çetin Erus, 19-50. İstanbul: Es Yayınları.
  • Davis, Therese. 2007. “Remembering Our Ancestors: Cross-cultural Collaboration and the Mediation of Aboriginal Culture and History in Ten Canoes.” Studies in Australasian Cinema 1 (1): 5-14.
  • Dippie, Brian W. 1982. The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy. US: University Press of Kansas.
  • Haglund, Anders ve Per Axelsson. 2016. “The Invisible Sami Population: Regional Public Healthcare in Northern Sweden 1863–1950.” Journal Of Northern Studies 10 (2): 123-145.
  • Dowell, Kristin. 2006. “Indigenous Media Gone Global: Strengthening Indigenous Identity On- and Offscreen at the First Nations\First Features Film Showcase.” American Anthropologist 108 (2): 376-384.
  • Ginsburg, Faye. 2004. “Shooting Back: From Ethnographic Film to Indigenous Production/ Ethnography of Media.” A Companion to Film Theory içinde, editörler Toby Miller ve Robert Stam, 295-322. UK: Blackwell Publishing. Healing Foundation. 2021. “Make Healing Happen – It’s time to act.” Erişim tarihi 23 Eylül 2022. https://healingfoundation.org.au/make-healing- happen/
  • Hearne, Joanna. 2012. Smoke Signals: Native Sinema Rising. USA: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Heith, Anne. 2018. “Indigeneity and Whiteness: Reading Carpentaria and The Sun, My Father in the Context of Globalization.” Indigenous Transnationalism içinde, editör Lynda Ng, 93-117. Australia: Giramondo Publishing.
  • History Channel. 2017. “Indian Reservations.” Erişim tarihi 25 Ekim 2023. https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/indian- reservations.
  • Hughes, Laura A. 2020. “Framing Representation: An Ethnographic Exploration of Visual Sovereignty and Contemporary Native American Art.” Yüksek lisans tezi, University of Denver. https://digitalcommons.du.edu/etd/1782
  • John Trudell. t.y. “Biography.” Erişim Tarihi: 18 Şubat 2023. https://www. johntrudell.com/biography.
  • Kunuk, Zacharias. 2017. “The Art of Inuit Storytelling.” Erişim tarihi 3 Mart 2023. http://www.isuma.tv/our-style/the-art-of-inuit-storytelling
  • Kuokkanen, Rauna J. 2003. “‘Survivance’ in Sami and First Nations Boarding School Narratives.” American Indian Quarterly 27 (3-4): 697-726.
  • Lantto, Patrik. 2005. “The Promise and Threat of Civilisation: Native School Policies in Canada and Sweeden in the20th Century.” Canadian Environments: Essays in Culture, Politics and History içinde, editörler Robert C. Thomsen ve Nanette L. Hale, 97-120. Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang.
  • LaRocque, Emma. 2010. When the Other is Me: Native Resistance Discourse 1850- 1990. Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press.
  • Lien, Sigrid ve Nielssen, Hilde W. 2021. “Introduction: Coloniality, Indigeneity, and Photography.” Adjusting the Lens: Indigenous Activism, Colonial Legacies, and Photographic Heritage içinde, editörler Sigrid Lien ve Hilde W. Nielssen, 3-20. Vancouver: UBC Press.
  • Martin, Douglas. 2014. “Doris Pilkington Garimara, Aboriginal Novelist, Dies at 76.” The New York Times, Erişim tarihi 20 Nisan 2014. https://www. nytimes.com/2014/04/21/arts/doris-pilkington-garimara-novelist-is- dead-at-76.html.
  • Memmi, Albert. 1991. The Colonizer and the Colonized. Çeviren Howard Greenfeld. UK: Beacoon Press. Raheja, Michelle H. 2007. “Reading Nanook’s Smile: Visual Sovereignty, Indigenous Revisions of Ethnography, and ‘Atanarjuat (The Fast Runner).’” American Quarterly 59 (4): 1159-1185.
  • Milligan, Christina. 2015. “Sites of exuberance: Barry Barclay and Fourth Cinema, ten years on.” International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics 11 (3): 347–359.
  • Minde, Henry. 2005. “Assimilation of the Sami: Implementation and Consequences.” Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi). 196. Erişim tarihi 2 Şubat 2023. https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1248&context=aprci
  • Mirzoeff, Nicholas. 2011. The Right to Look: A Counter History of Visuality. Durham & London: Duke University Press.
  • Omma, Lotta., Lars E. Holmgren ve Lars H. Jacobsson. 2011. “Being a Young Sami in Sweden Living Conditions, Identity and Life Satisfaction.” Journal of Northern Studies 1: 9-28.
  • Parliament of Canada. 2021. “An Act to amend the Bills of Exchange Act, the Interpretation Act and the Canada Labour Code (National Day for Truth and Reconciliation)” Erişim tarihi 3 Şubat 2023. https://parl.ca/ DocumentViewer/en/43-2/bill/C-5/royal-assent
  • Pearson, Wendy G. ve Susan Knabe. 2015. “Introduction: Globalizing Indigenous Film and Media.” Reverse Shots: Indigenous Film and Media in an International Context içinde, editörler Wendy G. Pearson, Susan Knabe. 3-39. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
  • Rader, Dean. 2002. “Word as Weapon: Visual Culture and Contemporary American Indian Poetry.” MELUS 27 (3): 147–167.
  • Raheja, Michelle H. 2010. Reservation Reelism. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Rickard, Jolene. 2020. “Indigenous Visual Sovereignty” (Lecture) Power Institute. Erişim tarihi 15 Kasım 2022. https://youtu.be/aGOUJbGK2o0.
  • Rony, Fatimah T. 1996. The Third Eye: Race, Cinema, and Ethnographic Spectacle. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Ryan, Michael ve Douglas Kellner. 2010. Politik Kamera. Çeviren Elif Özsayar. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Shohat, Ella ve Robert Stam. 2014. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media. NY: Routledge.
  • Strickland, April. 2013. “Barry Barclay’s Te Rua: The Unmanned Camera and Maori Political Activism.” The Fourth Eye: Maori Media In Aotearoa New Zealand içinde, editörler Brendan Hokowhıtu ve Vıjay Devadas, 143-161. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Şen, Aygün. 2022a. “İskandinav Beyazlığı ve Yerli Kimliğin Reddi: Sameblod.” Nordik Sinema içinde, editörler Elif Demoğlu ve Ekin Gündüz Özdemirci, 111-144.İstanbul: Doğu Kitabevi.
  • Şen, Aygün. 2022b. “Belleği ve Kimliği Geri Kazanmak: Sami Kadınların Birinci Şahıs Belgeselleri.” Kültür ve İletişim 25 (2): 392-423.
  • Teves, Stephanie N., Andrea Smith ve Michelle H. Raheja. 2015. “Introduction and Acknowledgments.” Native Studies Keywords içinde, editörler Stephanie N. Teves, Andrea Smith ve Michelle H. Raheja, vii-xi. Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
  • Turner, Stephen. 2013. “Reflections on Barry Barclay and Fourth Cinema.” The Fourth Eye: Maori Media In Aotearoa New Zealand içinde, editörler Brendan Hokowhitu ve Vijay Devadas, 162-178. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Vizenor, Gerald. 2008. “Aesthetics of Survivance Literary Theory and Practice.” Survivance: Narratives Of Native Presence içinde, editör Gerald Vizenor, 1-23. USA: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Webb, Sharon. 2006. “Making Museums, Making People: The Representation of the Sami Through Material Culture.” Public Archaeology 5(3): 167-183.
  • Wilson, Pamela ve Michelle Stewart. 2008. “Introduction: Indigeneity and Indigenous Media on the Global Stage.” Global Indigenous Media içinde, editörler Pamela Wilson ve Michelle Stewart, 1-35. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Woo, Elaine. 2014. “Doris Pilkington Garimara Dies; Wrote of Australia’s ‘Stolen Generations’.” Los Angeles Times, Erişim tarihi 19 Nisan 2014. https:// www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-doris-pilkington-garimara- 20140420-story.html.
  • Barnaby, Jeff. 2013. Rhymes for Young Ghouls. Kanada: Prospector Films.
  • Eyre, Chris. 1998. Smoke Signals. ABD: Shadowcatcher Entertainment.
  • Gauriloff, Katja. 2023. Je’vida. Finlandiya: Oktober.
  • Jackson, Lisa. 2004. Suckerfish. Kanada: Door Number 3 Productions.
  • Jackson, Lisa. 2009. Savage. Kanada: Door Number 3 Productions.
  • Kernell, Amanda. 2016. Sami Blood. İsveç: Nordisk Film Production.
  • Lundby, Ellen-Astri. 2009. Suddenly Sami. Norveç: Ellen Lundby Film & Media.
  • Tailfeathers, Elle-Maija. 2014. Bihttos. Kanada: Elle-Maija Tailfeathers. Thomassen, Yvonne. 2013. My Family Portrait. Norveç: Trude Refsahl. Wajstedt, Liselotte. 2007. Sami Daughter Yoik. İsveç: LittleBig Productions.

Yerli Sineması ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals

Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 125 - 168, 28.11.2023
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396870

Abstract

Sömürgeciliğin yüzyıllar boyunca bilim, popüler kültür ve ana akım sinemanın yardımıyla inşa ettiği “ortadan kaybolan Yerli” miti, Yerlilerin geçmişte kalmış veya zamanın dışında donmuş olduğu, medeni kültürlerle karşılaştığında ortadan kaybolmasının kaçınılmaz olduğu fikrine dayanır. Yerlileri yok etmeye yönelik sömürgeci şiddet ve bu şiddet karşısında geliştirilen mücadelenin küresel ortaklığına vurgu yapan bu çalışma, sömürgecilik tarihini ifşa eden, karşı anlatılar kuran Yerli sinemasını, yok olmaya direniş ve hayatta kalma eylemi olarak ele almaktadır. Yok olması istenen Yerli sembollerin ve ritüellerin perdeye yansıması, yasaklanan dillerin duyulması, resmî tarihin gizlediklerinin dile getirilmesi, bunu amaçlamasa bile Yerli sinemasını politik direnişin aygıtı haline getirir. Sinema tarihi boyunca beyazlar tarafından Yerliler “hakkında” yapılmış filmler Yerli halkları klişelere hapsetmiş, işgalciliği meşrulaştıran bir dil kurmuştur. Yerli halk “tarafından” ve Yerli halk “için” üretilen her film, Yerli halkın sömürgeci temsillerine açık ya da örtük meydan okuyarak yok olmaya yazgılı olduğu iddia edilen Yerlilerin direnişini ortaya koyar. Yerli sineması, nostaljik bir sömürgecilik öncesi geçmişe dönme arzusuna tutunmayı ya da topluluğu sadece kolektif bellekteki acılarla tanımlamayı değil çağdaş dünyada Yerli olarak var olmaya devam etmek için yeni bir dil kurmayı amaçlar. Çalışmada Smoke Signals’ın (Chris Eyre, 1998) ideolojik çözümlemesi yapılmış, popüler kültür ve ana akım sinemanın öğelerini yapıbozuma uğratan, günümüz toplumsal meseleleri ve onların kültürel mirası arasında bir diyalog yürüten, çağdaş dünyada Yerli varoluşunu yücelten Yerli sineması örneği olarak ele alınmıştır.

References

  • Barclay, Barry. 2003. “Celebrating Fourth Cinema.” Illusions Magazine 35: 7-11. https://www.academia.edu/4905111/Printed_in_Illusions_Magazine_ NZ_July_2003_CELEBRATING_FOURTH_CINEMA.
  • Barclay, Barry. 2015. Our Own Image. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Baswan, Meera ve Sena Yenilmez. t.y. “The Sixties Scoop.” Erişim tarihi 15 Ağustos 2022. https://www.theindigenousfoundation.org/articles/the- sixties-scoop.
  • Bergstrom, Aren. 2015. “An Indigenous New Wave of Film.” Erişim tarihi 30 Ekim 2015. https://3brothersfilm.com/blog/2015/10/30/an-indigenous- new-wave-of-film.
  • Blanchard, Pascal. 2016. “Vahşinin İcadı”. Skop Bülten, 26 Temmuz 2016. Çeviren Ali Artun. Erişim tarihi 2 Temmuz 2023. https://www.e-skop.com/ skopbulten/pasajlar-vahsinin-icadi/3011.
  • Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse. 2005. “From Intergenerational Trauma to Intergeneratonal Healing.” Wellbriety Online Magazine 6: 2-8. https://www.sjsu.edu/people/marcos.pizarro/maestros/BraveHeart.pdf.
  • Columpar, Corinn. 2010. Unsettling Sights: The Fourth World on Film. USA: Southern Illinois University.
  • Cordova, Amalia. 2014. “Reenact, Reimagine: Performative Indigenous Documentaries of Bolivia and Brazil.” New Documentaries in Latin America içinde, editörler Vinicius Navarro ve Juan Carlos Rodriguez, 123-144. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Çetin-Erus, Zeynep. 2007. “Manifestolardan Günümüze Üçüncü Sinema Tartışmaları.” Üçüncü Sinema ve Üçüncü Dünya Sineması içinde, editörler Esra Biryıldız ve Zeynep Çetin Erus, 19-50. İstanbul: Es Yayınları.
  • Davis, Therese. 2007. “Remembering Our Ancestors: Cross-cultural Collaboration and the Mediation of Aboriginal Culture and History in Ten Canoes.” Studies in Australasian Cinema 1 (1): 5-14.
  • Dippie, Brian W. 1982. The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy. US: University Press of Kansas.
  • Haglund, Anders ve Per Axelsson. 2016. “The Invisible Sami Population: Regional Public Healthcare in Northern Sweden 1863–1950.” Journal Of Northern Studies 10 (2): 123-145.
  • Dowell, Kristin. 2006. “Indigenous Media Gone Global: Strengthening Indigenous Identity On- and Offscreen at the First Nations\First Features Film Showcase.” American Anthropologist 108 (2): 376-384.
  • Ginsburg, Faye. 2004. “Shooting Back: From Ethnographic Film to Indigenous Production/ Ethnography of Media.” A Companion to Film Theory içinde, editörler Toby Miller ve Robert Stam, 295-322. UK: Blackwell Publishing. Healing Foundation. 2021. “Make Healing Happen – It’s time to act.” Erişim tarihi 23 Eylül 2022. https://healingfoundation.org.au/make-healing- happen/
  • Hearne, Joanna. 2012. Smoke Signals: Native Sinema Rising. USA: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Heith, Anne. 2018. “Indigeneity and Whiteness: Reading Carpentaria and The Sun, My Father in the Context of Globalization.” Indigenous Transnationalism içinde, editör Lynda Ng, 93-117. Australia: Giramondo Publishing.
  • History Channel. 2017. “Indian Reservations.” Erişim tarihi 25 Ekim 2023. https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/indian- reservations.
  • Hughes, Laura A. 2020. “Framing Representation: An Ethnographic Exploration of Visual Sovereignty and Contemporary Native American Art.” Yüksek lisans tezi, University of Denver. https://digitalcommons.du.edu/etd/1782
  • John Trudell. t.y. “Biography.” Erişim Tarihi: 18 Şubat 2023. https://www. johntrudell.com/biography.
  • Kunuk, Zacharias. 2017. “The Art of Inuit Storytelling.” Erişim tarihi 3 Mart 2023. http://www.isuma.tv/our-style/the-art-of-inuit-storytelling
  • Kuokkanen, Rauna J. 2003. “‘Survivance’ in Sami and First Nations Boarding School Narratives.” American Indian Quarterly 27 (3-4): 697-726.
  • Lantto, Patrik. 2005. “The Promise and Threat of Civilisation: Native School Policies in Canada and Sweeden in the20th Century.” Canadian Environments: Essays in Culture, Politics and History içinde, editörler Robert C. Thomsen ve Nanette L. Hale, 97-120. Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang.
  • LaRocque, Emma. 2010. When the Other is Me: Native Resistance Discourse 1850- 1990. Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press.
  • Lien, Sigrid ve Nielssen, Hilde W. 2021. “Introduction: Coloniality, Indigeneity, and Photography.” Adjusting the Lens: Indigenous Activism, Colonial Legacies, and Photographic Heritage içinde, editörler Sigrid Lien ve Hilde W. Nielssen, 3-20. Vancouver: UBC Press.
  • Martin, Douglas. 2014. “Doris Pilkington Garimara, Aboriginal Novelist, Dies at 76.” The New York Times, Erişim tarihi 20 Nisan 2014. https://www. nytimes.com/2014/04/21/arts/doris-pilkington-garimara-novelist-is- dead-at-76.html.
  • Memmi, Albert. 1991. The Colonizer and the Colonized. Çeviren Howard Greenfeld. UK: Beacoon Press. Raheja, Michelle H. 2007. “Reading Nanook’s Smile: Visual Sovereignty, Indigenous Revisions of Ethnography, and ‘Atanarjuat (The Fast Runner).’” American Quarterly 59 (4): 1159-1185.
  • Milligan, Christina. 2015. “Sites of exuberance: Barry Barclay and Fourth Cinema, ten years on.” International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics 11 (3): 347–359.
  • Minde, Henry. 2005. “Assimilation of the Sami: Implementation and Consequences.” Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi). 196. Erişim tarihi 2 Şubat 2023. https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1248&context=aprci
  • Mirzoeff, Nicholas. 2011. The Right to Look: A Counter History of Visuality. Durham & London: Duke University Press.
  • Omma, Lotta., Lars E. Holmgren ve Lars H. Jacobsson. 2011. “Being a Young Sami in Sweden Living Conditions, Identity and Life Satisfaction.” Journal of Northern Studies 1: 9-28.
  • Parliament of Canada. 2021. “An Act to amend the Bills of Exchange Act, the Interpretation Act and the Canada Labour Code (National Day for Truth and Reconciliation)” Erişim tarihi 3 Şubat 2023. https://parl.ca/ DocumentViewer/en/43-2/bill/C-5/royal-assent
  • Pearson, Wendy G. ve Susan Knabe. 2015. “Introduction: Globalizing Indigenous Film and Media.” Reverse Shots: Indigenous Film and Media in an International Context içinde, editörler Wendy G. Pearson, Susan Knabe. 3-39. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
  • Rader, Dean. 2002. “Word as Weapon: Visual Culture and Contemporary American Indian Poetry.” MELUS 27 (3): 147–167.
  • Raheja, Michelle H. 2010. Reservation Reelism. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Rickard, Jolene. 2020. “Indigenous Visual Sovereignty” (Lecture) Power Institute. Erişim tarihi 15 Kasım 2022. https://youtu.be/aGOUJbGK2o0.
  • Rony, Fatimah T. 1996. The Third Eye: Race, Cinema, and Ethnographic Spectacle. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Ryan, Michael ve Douglas Kellner. 2010. Politik Kamera. Çeviren Elif Özsayar. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Shohat, Ella ve Robert Stam. 2014. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media. NY: Routledge.
  • Strickland, April. 2013. “Barry Barclay’s Te Rua: The Unmanned Camera and Maori Political Activism.” The Fourth Eye: Maori Media In Aotearoa New Zealand içinde, editörler Brendan Hokowhıtu ve Vıjay Devadas, 143-161. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Şen, Aygün. 2022a. “İskandinav Beyazlığı ve Yerli Kimliğin Reddi: Sameblod.” Nordik Sinema içinde, editörler Elif Demoğlu ve Ekin Gündüz Özdemirci, 111-144.İstanbul: Doğu Kitabevi.
  • Şen, Aygün. 2022b. “Belleği ve Kimliği Geri Kazanmak: Sami Kadınların Birinci Şahıs Belgeselleri.” Kültür ve İletişim 25 (2): 392-423.
  • Teves, Stephanie N., Andrea Smith ve Michelle H. Raheja. 2015. “Introduction and Acknowledgments.” Native Studies Keywords içinde, editörler Stephanie N. Teves, Andrea Smith ve Michelle H. Raheja, vii-xi. Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
  • Turner, Stephen. 2013. “Reflections on Barry Barclay and Fourth Cinema.” The Fourth Eye: Maori Media In Aotearoa New Zealand içinde, editörler Brendan Hokowhitu ve Vijay Devadas, 162-178. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Vizenor, Gerald. 2008. “Aesthetics of Survivance Literary Theory and Practice.” Survivance: Narratives Of Native Presence içinde, editör Gerald Vizenor, 1-23. USA: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Webb, Sharon. 2006. “Making Museums, Making People: The Representation of the Sami Through Material Culture.” Public Archaeology 5(3): 167-183.
  • Wilson, Pamela ve Michelle Stewart. 2008. “Introduction: Indigeneity and Indigenous Media on the Global Stage.” Global Indigenous Media içinde, editörler Pamela Wilson ve Michelle Stewart, 1-35. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Woo, Elaine. 2014. “Doris Pilkington Garimara Dies; Wrote of Australia’s ‘Stolen Generations’.” Los Angeles Times, Erişim tarihi 19 Nisan 2014. https:// www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-doris-pilkington-garimara- 20140420-story.html.
  • Barnaby, Jeff. 2013. Rhymes for Young Ghouls. Kanada: Prospector Films.
  • Eyre, Chris. 1998. Smoke Signals. ABD: Shadowcatcher Entertainment.
  • Gauriloff, Katja. 2023. Je’vida. Finlandiya: Oktober.
  • Jackson, Lisa. 2004. Suckerfish. Kanada: Door Number 3 Productions.
  • Jackson, Lisa. 2009. Savage. Kanada: Door Number 3 Productions.
  • Kernell, Amanda. 2016. Sami Blood. İsveç: Nordisk Film Production.
  • Lundby, Ellen-Astri. 2009. Suddenly Sami. Norveç: Ellen Lundby Film & Media.
  • Tailfeathers, Elle-Maija. 2014. Bihttos. Kanada: Elle-Maija Tailfeathers. Thomassen, Yvonne. 2013. My Family Portrait. Norveç: Trude Refsahl. Wajstedt, Liselotte. 2007. Sami Daughter Yoik. İsveç: LittleBig Productions.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Culture, Representation and Identity, Movie Review, Cinema Theories
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Aygün ŞEN 0000-0002-6438-1426

Publication Date November 28, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 10 Issue: 2

Cite

APA ŞEN, A. (2023). Yerli Sineması ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, 10(2), 125-168. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396870
AMA ŞEN A. Yerli Sineması ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. November 2023;10(2):125-168. doi:10.24955/ilef.1396870
Chicago ŞEN, Aygün. “Yerli Sineması Ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10, no. 2 (November 2023): 125-68. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396870.
EndNote ŞEN A (November 1, 2023) Yerli Sineması ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10 2 125–168.
IEEE A. ŞEN, “Yerli Sineması ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals”, Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 125–168, 2023, doi: 10.24955/ilef.1396870.
ISNAD ŞEN, Aygün. “Yerli Sineması Ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi 10/2 (November 2023), 125-168. https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1396870.
JAMA ŞEN A. Yerli Sineması ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2023;10:125–168.
MLA ŞEN, Aygün. “Yerli Sineması Ve Ortadan Kaybolmaya Direnen Yerli: Smoke Signals”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 2, 2023, pp. 125-68, doi:10.24955/ilef.1396870.
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